Below are a series of questions based on the chapters we have covered (Chpts.1-4). You will find your textbook and notes helpful in answering some of these questions. When uploading your assignment onto CU LEARN, make sure it is in a WORD or PDF format. Other formats will NOT BE MARKED. Make sure your name and student number is included on your submission. The value for each question is indicated. TOTAL: 37 marks.
Chapter 1: This exercise will help you explore the different theories/perspectives we discussed. Following the instructions below, answer the questions. The value for each question is indicated.
In this module, you learned about some of the main perspectives in psychology. Think about some of the various perspectives you learned about (including psychoanalysis, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, humanism, and the biological approach). Next, choose ONE perspective and explain how a psychologist from that perspective might explain the following human behaviors. You should choose only ONE theory for each question and it must a different theory for each question. Your answer should only be a couple of sentences and should demonstrate that you understand the theory. You should also identify which theory you are using for each question. (Value 6 marks).
1. Why do people cut or shave hair from their bodies (and why does it vary by sex, age, groups, etc.)?
2. Why do children in an elementary school walk in a line when going to class?
3. Why are people physically aggressive towards each other (and why might males might be observed doing so more than females)?
Explain each of the three behaviors with a DIFFERENT perspective. Give a well-founded explanation of how a psychologist would explain that behavior from that particular perspective.
Chapter 2: This activity explores some of the research designs we discussed in the module. Read the instructions below and answer the questions. The value for each question is indicated.
For each of the following scenarios, identify which research strategy is used: observational, correlational, or experimental. (4 marks)
A. Dr. Jones conducts a study examining the relationship between viewing violent television and aggressive behaviour of 5-year-old boys. Television preferences are obtained by interviewing each child and aggressive behaviour is measured by observing the children during an outdoor play period.
B. Dr. Jones conducts a study examining the relationship between viewing violent television and aggressive behaviour of 5-year-old boys. Television preferences are obtained by interviewing each child. Based on the interview results, the boys are divided into two groups: those who prefer violent television and those who prefer non-violent television. The aggressive behaviour is measured by questionnaires given to the childrens’ teachers regarding their aggressive behaviour to determine if there is any difference between the two groups.
C.Dr. Jones conducts a study examining the relationship between viewing violent television and aggressive behaviour of 5-year-old boys. A group of boys is randomly separated; half the boys are shown violent television programs for 30 minutes before play time and the other half of the boys are shown non-violent television programming during the same period. Aggressive behaviour is then measured by observing the children during an outdoor play period to determine if there is any difference between the two groups.
D. Dr. Jones conducts a study examining the relationship between viewing violent television and aggressive behaviour of 5-year-old boys. Each afternoon for 1 week, a group of boys in a child-care center is observed during a 30-minute period while they are outdoors. Aggressive behaviours are recorded during the 30-minute period.
Chapter 3: These questions help you explore concepts on brain structure and function discussed in your lecture/chapter. Answer the question below. The value for each question is indicated.
Case Studies for Neuroanatomy
Use your knowledge of the anatomy and the workings of the brain to indicate ONE brain area that is particularly stimulated/active in the scenarios below. Also, speculate as to ONE neurotransmitter that might be involved in the behaviours described. (8 marks).
Anne, a landscape artist, is standing at her easel, painting with her right hand as she looks out the window at her garden. She’s listening to classical music as she paints.
Matt is about to present the findings of his research on the relationship between extracurricular activities and stress levels in adults. He has rehearsed his presentation for weeks, but as he approaches the stage his heart starts beating rapidly and he becomes anxious. As he begins, his anxiousness subsides and he successfully recalls all of the information he wanted to discuss.
Rob is a professional boxer. He is in the last round of his fight when he suddenly gets knocked down by his opponent. Both boxers are exhausted by this point (sweating and out of breath). Rob appears severely injured, but miraculously he regains his composure and eventually wins the fight.
Sue is lying in bed reading an interesting book. She starts to feel tired and slowly falls asleep.
Communication between neurons
Fill in the blanks
Using the options below, fill in the blanks. (10 marks).
Neurons send messages by creating a brief wave of electrical charge; this charge is called an _________ ____________. The action potential conforms to the __________ principle. Once the action potential has fired it travels along the ________. Each axon ends in numerous __________ _________. Each terminal button stores ____________. When the electrochemical wave arrives at the terminal button, the neurotransmitter is released onto the ____________, the tiny gap between neurons. The neuron that sends this signal is called the _________ neuron, while the receiving neuron is called the _____________. The neuron responsible for the action potential has to wait before it can send another electrochemical wave; this period is called the ___________ _____________ period. After the neurotransmitters have activated the receptor sites, they drift and are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron through ____________.
Chapter 4: This activity reviews some key concepts covered in Sensation & Perception. Read the instructions below and answer the questions. The value for each question is indicated.
Match the definition with the correct term, by indicating the number in the space provided (Note: You will not be using one of the definitions! (9 marks)
1. Illusion ___ Type of hearing loss often accompanied by tinnitus, caused by repeated exposure to loud noises
2. Visual Agnosia ___ Sensation we experience determined by the nature of the sense receptor, not the stimulus.
___ Receptor cells that allow us to see basic shapes and forms and are used to help to see in low light.
___ The study of how we perceive sensory
stimuli based on the physical characteristics of the stimuli.
___ Theory that states that there is a constant proportional relationship between the just noticeable difference (JND) and the original stimulus intensity.
___ When we stare at some colour for a long time then look away, then see a different coloured replica of the same image.
___ The process by which the nervous system converts an external stimulus into electrical stimuli within neurons.
7. Just noticeable difference (JND)
___ A deficit in perceiving objects. A person with this condition can name the shape and colour of an object but can’t recognize it.
8.Specific nerve energy
___ The way you perceive stimulus that does not match its physical reality.
___ Smallest change in the intensity of a stimulus that we can detect. How much of a difference in stimulus makes a difference.