In Unit 4, you are learning about many basic concepts in ABA, including the role the three-term contingency (antecedent-behavior-consequence) plays in triggering and maintaining or reducing behavior, as well as how behavior is affected by reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. You are discovering how you can manipulate the antecedents and consequences of a target behavior to affect change in the behavior. Modifications to the consequences of behavior, specifically reinforcement, punishment, and extinction, have long been staples in ABA modification programs and the focal point of research and practice. Recently, antecedent manipulation has garnered a great deal of attention and has become a critical element in behavior assessment and intervention. In Unit 4, you are exploring the process of, and rationale for, antecedent modification and antecedent control in preventing and/or reducing the occurrence of target behaviors. You are also discovering the many types and uses of differential reinforcement (DR) and the criteria for the implementation of each of these powerful behavior modification approaches. Watch the Unit 4 Lecture. (Transcripts) Read the following scenario. Setting the Scene: Frank is a board certified behavior analyst (BCBA) who works with Changing Directions, an agency that provides community-based mental health services. The agency received a behavior analysis referral from a pediatrician for a 10-year-old boy named Michael. Michael’s mother, Katherine, has had some significant problems with his behavior for as long as she can remember, but these problems have increased over the past 2 years. Michael engages in verbally aggressive behavior at home, including yelling/arguing with his mother and siblings, as well as property destruction in the form of breaking toys, breaking household items, and kicking holes in the wall. Michael has begun to display similar behaviors in the school setting, which has resulted in his mother having to leave work to pick him up. Katherine received a promotion at her current job over a year ago, which has required a significant increase in her work hours and less time with the children. In an initial interview, Katherine reports that she has spanked Michael when he has “acted out” and has tried to reward Michael when he has “behaved well,” but nothing appears to work. Frank conducted a functional behavior assessment (FBA) that indicated that much of Michael’s behavior appeared to serve the function of positive reinforcement in the form of social attention from his mother. Discussion: How are antecedent interventions used as a behavior intervention strategy? Define each of the following: Differential reinforcement of alternative (DRA) behavior Differential reinforcement of incompatible (DRI) behavior Differential reinforcement of other (DRO) behavior Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) of behavior Based upon the probable function of the target behavior, as determined by the FBA, illustrate the differential reinforcement approach that you feel would be most appropriate to address Michael’s target behavior and explain how you would implement this BIP. Based upon the readings and the BACB’s Ethics Code, apply the ethical considerations that might impact your choice of intervention in the current scenario.